Jet A1

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Is a type of aviation fuel designed for use in aircraft powered by gas-turbine engines. It is colorless to straw-colored in appearance. The most commonly used fuels for commercial aviation are Jet A and Jet A-1, which are produced to a standardized international specification. The only other jet fuel commonly used in civilian turbine-engine powered aviation is Jet B, which is used for its enhanced cold-weather performance. The turbine generates power by converting the chemical energy stored in the fuel into a combination of mechanical energy and heat. a combination of mechanical energy and heat.

Combustion characteristics

In an aircraft turbine, small carbonaceous particles form prematurely during combustion processes. These particles continue to burn as they pass through the flame and are completely consumed. If these carbonaceous particles are not completely consumed by the flame, they can impact on the turbine blades and the turbine’s stators causing erosion of the materials. In addition, the carbonaceous particles are responsible for the visible smoke that turbines can emit.

Stability

Lubricity

Fluidity

Viscosity

Volatility

Corrosion

Cleaning

Freezing point

Jet A-1 Composition
Kerosene or JET A-1
Crude oil is of a hydrocarbon nature and is made up of a complex mixture of different types of hydrocarbons, therefore, it is composed of Carbon and Hydrogen with a small percentage of other elements such as Sulfur, Nitrogen and metals of more or less complex structures.

Through the refining activity, crude oil is transformed into higher value-added products, one of them being fuels.

Almost all of today’s JET A-1 is obtained from the middle fractions from Atmospheric Distillation, which is the first stage in the refining of a crude oil. The objective of this process is to vaporize the crude oil and separate by condensation at different temperatures different fractions, obtaining kerosene in one of them.

Is a mixture of hydrocarbons ranging from C9 to C17. In the manufacture of kerosene are used:

Primary fractions from crude oil distillation (Straight-run) Hydrotreated primary fractions (sulfur removal) Conversion fractions (FCC, Visbreaking, etc.)

Typical Physical Properties For Jet A / Jet A-1

Jet A-1 fuel must meet:

  • DEF STAN 91-91 (Jet A-1),
  • ASTM specification D1655 (Jet A-1)
  • IATA Guidance Material (Kerosene Type), NATO Code F-35.
  • Jet A fuel must reach ASTM specification D1655 (Jet A)

Flash point

Autoignition temperature

freezing point

max adiabatic burn temperature

Density at 15 °C (59 °F)

Specific energy

Energy density

Jet A-1

38 °C (100 °F)

210 °C (410 °F)

−47 °C (−53 °F)

2,230 °C (4,050 °F)open
air burn temperature:
1,030 °C (1,890 °F)

0.804 kg/L (6.71 lb/US gal)

43.15 MJ/kg (11.99 kWh/kg)

34.7 MJ/L (9.6 kWh/L)

Jet A

38 °C (100 °F)

210 °C (410 °F)

−40 °C (−40 °F)

2,230 °C (4,050 °F)open
air burn temperature:
1,030 °C (1,890 °F)

0.820 kg/L (6.84 lb/US gal)

43.15 MJ/kg (11.99 kWh/kg)

35.3 MJ/L (9.8 kWh/L)

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