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  • Botanical Family: Amaryllidaceae.
    Climate: Prefers temperate climates but can adapt to a wide range of weather conditions.
  • Soil: Favors well-drained, fertile soils rich in organic matter with a pH between 6.0 and 7.0.
  • Crop Cycle: Between 90 and 150 days depending on the variety and growing conditions.
  • Propagation: Through seeds, transplants of young plants, or onion sets.
  • xIrrigation: Requires consistent but not excessive irrigation to prevent bulb rot.

Onion  varieties

  • White Onion: Mild in flavor and primarily used fresh in salads and sandwiches.
  • Yellow or Gold Onion: Most common for cooking, adding a rich, sweet flavor to dishes.
  • Red Onion: Used both raw and cooked, it has a more pronounced flavor and a color that adds appeal to dishes.
  • Green or Spring Onion: Mainly used in salads and as garnishes, they have a milder flavor.
  • Purple Onion: With a unique flavor profile and vibrant color, they are excellent for salads and fresh dishes.

common usses

  • Culinary: Widely used as a seasoning and foundation in a vast array of dishes worldwide.
  • Industry: Utilized in the production of products such as dehydrated soups, powders, and seasonings.
  • Gardening: Employed in gardens as an ornamental plant and to repel certain pests.

The production process


1. Variety Selection and Soil Preparation

  • Variety choice: Based on the climatic and soil conditions of the region.
  • Soil preparation: Deep tilling to allow good root development, incorporation of organic matter, and pH adjustment between 6.0 and 7.0.

2. Planting

  • Planting season: Depending on the climate and the chosen variety, it can be planted at different times of the year.
  • Type of planting: It can be direct (sowing seeds in the definitive ground) or transplanting seedlings previously germinated in a nursery.

3. Care During Growth

  • Irrigation: Maintain constant moisture but without waterlogging to avoid fungal diseases.
  • Weed control: Perform weeding tasks or use specific herbicides.
  • Fertilization: Apply fertilizers rich in nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium according to the crop’s needs.

4. Pest and Disease Management

  • Common pests: Thrips, nematodes, and mites are some of the pests that can affect the crop.
  • Common diseases: Downy mildew, white rot, and fusarium are typical diseases in onion cultivation.
  • Control: Implement preventive measures and, if necessary, use specific phytosanitary products.

5. Harvest

  • Optimal moment: When the foliage begins to yellow and fall, generally between 90 and 150 days after planting.
  • Collection: Carry it out manually or using specific machinery to avoid damaging the bulbs.

6. Post-harvest and Storage

  • Curing: Leave the onions in the sun for a few days so that the bulbs cure and the skin hardens.
  • Storage: Store in a cool, dry, and well-ventilated place to avoid disease proliferation and decomposition.

7. Marketing

  • Packing: Select, clean, and pack the onions for sale.
  • Sale: Distribute to local or international markets depending on the scale of production.

Places Where It Is Grown

  • Americas
  • United States: The main producing states include California, Texas, and Washington.
  • Mexico: It is cultivated in various states, including Baja California, Chihuahua, and Puebla.
  • Argentina: Provinces like Mendoza, Buenos Aires, and San Juan are significant regions for onion cultivation.
  • Brazil: It is grown in states such as São Paulo, Minas Gerais, and Goiás.
  • Asia
  • China: It is the largest onion producer globally, cultivating them in various provinces.
  • India: Another significant onion producer, with major cultivation in states such as Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Madhya Pradesh.
  • Japan: While not a large producer, it mainly cultivates onions in Hokkaido and the Tohoku region.
  • Europe
  • Spain: One of the major producers in Europe, with significant production in regions like Castilla-La Mancha and Valencia.
  • The Netherlands: A substantial producer and exporter, especially in the provinces of Flevoland and Noord-Holland.
  • Russia: Primarily produces onions in the southern and southwestern parts of the country.
  • Africa
  • Egypt: The main producer in Africa, growing them mainly in the Nile Delta and Upper Egypt regions.
  • South Africa: The Western Cape and Limpopo provinces are significant onion-producing regions.
  • Oceania
  • Australia: The regions of Tasmania, South Australia, and Queensland are primary areas for onion cultivation.
  • Middle East
  • Iran: A significant producer in the region, cultivating onions mainly in the northern and northwestern provinces.

Medicinal Uses

  • Anti-inflammatory: Contains anti-inflammatory properties that can help reduce inflammation.
  • Immune System: The vitamin C content can help boost the immune system.
  • Cardiovascular Health: May help lower cholesterol levels and enhance cardiovascular health.
  • Digestion: The fiber present in onions can aid in improving digestion.
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